M1 and M2 macrophages display profoundly different metabolic profiles and IL-10 production under hypoxic conditions

Background: Macrophages have a wide range of immunological and non-immunological functions, ranging from clearance of apoptotic cells, tissue remodelling, and release of pro and anti-inflammatory mediators at sites of tissue damage or infection. Subsets of phenoty- pically distinct macrophages may be uniquely adapted to perform these roles. Phenotypically and functionally ... More

Get a list of all processes not run by you  bash

Find the currently running processes on your system that were not started by yourself. A great way to find out what is hogging your system on multiple-user setups or remote logins. Open up a terminal session and enter: ps aux | grep -v `whoami` ps aux returns (a) all processes with ... More

Get file type information from the command line  bash

Often forgotten the file command will give you a simple summary of a file's type and content. At the prompt enter file where is the name of the file you are interested in. You will receive output detailing the files contents, e.g. A Word Document.doc ... More

Install Cinnamon on Ubuntu 12.04  linux

Cinnamon is a re-implementation of the Gnome 2 desktop in GTK3 developed by the Linux Mint project as an alternative to both Gnome3/Shell and Ubuntu Unity. Here we explain how to install Cinnamon on top of your Ubuntu installation, without installing Linux Mint. As with all Ubuntu unsupported software ... More

Find all running processes of a program  bash

Find the pids of all instances/processes of a given program running on your system Open a terminal and enter ps ax | grep "firefox" ...replacing 'firefox' with the name of the program you are looking for. The columns in the output are as follows: (1) pid 'process id' (2) tty ... More

Set CDPATH to ease folder navigation  bash

CDPATH is an environment variable which tells the cd command where to look for the specified folder. By including the parent folders of commonly used locations you can access folders more easily - and without typing an entire path. More

Use ifconfig.me to return your IP and Host  bash

ifconfig.me is a web service that displays information about your connection, including IP address, hostname and User Agent string. Helpfully it provides a simplified interface that can be easily queried to get this information from the command line. More

Find top 404 Error pages (Apache)

A quick one-liner to find the most common pages giving 404 errors on your apache2 setup. Set this up as a shell alias to get easy access at any time. More

Execute last command as root  bash

Re-run previously entered command as root user. sudo !! !! is automatically substituted to the content of the previous command. Turning the above line into sudo . More

Debug GNOME Shell  linux

Debug Gnome Shell, or run it from the console, either for plugin development or troubleshooting. Switch to the console using Ctrl Alt F1 Type "w" to find your display (usually it's :0.0) Export your display (usually with export DISPLAY=:0.0) Restart gnome shell from the console by ... More

Control-R Through Your History  bash

Interactively search through your command line history with a simple keyboard shortcut. At a new shell prompt (bash or Terminal.app on Mac) press Ctrl-R Start typing the search string to lookup in your bash history. As you type the top matching command in your history will appear. Hit Return ... More

Install HomeBrew package manager for Mac  mac

Homebrew is the easiest and most flexible way to install the UNIX tools Apple didn't include with OS X. It provides a simpler alternative to MacPorts, installing under an isolated non-root prefix, symlinked to /usr/local More

Use screen to manage persistent sessions  bash

GNU Screen is a command-line application that allows use of multiple virtual sessions within a single real terminal or remote session. Importantly, it allows for persistent running of command-line applications independent of the shell that initiated them program, meaning active applications can persist during disconnection. More

Add Git Branch Name to Terminal Prompt (Mac)  bash

When in a repository directory you can show the name of the currently checked out Git branch in the prompt, making it easier to track where you are (and where you're about to commit). The following instructions are written for Mac OS X (Lion) or later, using a terminal ... More

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